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By Bidyut Chakrabarty

This center political technology textbook written for the paper Indian govt and Politics explores the altering nature of politico-constitutional associations and is drawn from the 1950 structure of India.

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Nevertheless, the fundamental duties have become a part of the Constitution and despite their non-justiciability, they continue to exercise some sort of social and collective restriction on those who are fond of enjoying unfettered rights without discharging even an iota of duty to the society and the nation. DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The provision of the Directive Principles of State Policy in the Constitution was the culmination of the humanitarian and socialist ideas nurtured by a majority of the leaders of the national Salient Features of the Indian Constitution 15 movement who aspired for not only a political democracy for India but also a socio-economic democracy.

At the time of the inauguration of the Interim Government in September 1946, the livelihood of the people was threatened due to famine-like conditions in many parts of the country, rising food prices, precarious grain reserves, and a clash of interests between the surplus and scarcity provinces. Similarly, the threat to the unity of the nascent nation came from rising communal passions in the wake of Direct Action Day call by Jinnah, the reluctance of a few princely states to join the Indian Union, and the Communist rebellion in the regions like Telangana.

Having decided in favour of a rapid evolution, as against violent revolution, as K. Santhanam put it, the obvious question before the framers, as Austin reveals, was: what form of political institutions would foster or at least permit a social revolution? 19 Reminiscent of the old liking of the Indians for the parliamentary institutions, the Constituent Assembly’s decision in favour of the latter option was arrived at with overwhelming majority, with only one member raising a voice in favour of the village panchayats, though the broad contours of his scheme of things also appeared to be in the mould of representative democratic governance.

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