By Milind Desai, Christine Jellis, Teerapat Yingchoncharoen
Valvular middle medication revolves round the have to properly establish destinations of pathological buildings and/or the interventional instruments had to deal with that pathology. The imaging of the valves is constructing at an immense velocity and the clinician needs to be conscious of some great benefits of each one modality and the way it compares to the others on hand. there's a want for a pragmatic, scientific atlas designed to paintings the reader via situations and assessing the most suitable offerings on hand to physicians. This atlas will signify the whole multimodality imaging judgements wanted whilst assessing mitral valvular issues. inside of this atlas the authors can be featuring a accomplished pictorial review of the hugely complicated pathology/treatment strategies and administration during this diversified staff of sufferers with assorted mitral valvular pathologies. Imaging modalities flow speedy representing problem to practitioners. This atlas will permit them to profit the alternatives on hand and be good versed in concepts. it is going to as a result be crucial examining for all cardiac imagers, surgeons, interventionalists, anesthetists and trainees in those disciplines.
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Extra resources for An Atlas of Mitral Valve Imaging
12). The MVA can be calculated using an empirical formula: 220/PHT or 759/Decleration time (DT). If the E-wave Doppler profile is bimodal, it is preferable to trace the deceleration slope in mid-diastole rather than using an early deceleration slope (Method 3 in Figure), as this slope was shown to have the 27 best correlation with MVA by the Gorlin equation . In patients with atrial fibrillation, the tracing should be done in long diastoles and use the average from multiple tracings. In patients with concave shape on the Doppler tracing, this technique cannot be reliably used.
Of the stenotic mitral valve, other cardiac valves, and central circu2011;4:580–8. latory shunts. 1951;41:1–29. 5. Sugeng L, Weinert L, Lammertin G, Thomas P, Spencer KT, Decara 14. Extreme pulmonary hypertension caused by JM, et al. Accuracy of mitral valve area measurements using transmitral valve disease. Natural history and results of surgery. 1975;37:74–8. noninvasive and invasive methods. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. Chan KL, Currie PJ, Seward JB, Hagler DJ, Mair DD, Tajik 2003;16:1292–300.
4). Fig. 3 Spectral Doppler image demonstrating inflow through the mitral valve during diastole 20 C. Jellis and T. 4 Fig. 4 The relationship and direction of diastolic mitral inflow and systolic mitral regurgitation Color Doppler Imaging This Doppler technique, which enables a color pattern of blood flow volume and direction within the heart to be superimposed on a 2D image, is particularly useful in the assessment of mitral regurgitation. The color Doppler jet pattern can be visually characterized with respect to the origin, direction, timing, and extent of reverse flow or turbulence of flow in different imaging planes.