By Angelo Basile, Suzana Pereira Nunes
Membranes are essentially designed to split specific gases/liquids from different streams of gas/liquids, which provides an more and more vital and promising power to either the traditional and replacement energy sectors, in addition to to wash purposes. Advances in fabrics advancements besides laptop modeling and simulation have contributed significantly to this box, making an allowance for better layout and manufacture of selective membrane as serious elements for such strength and environmental structures as fuel processing, ion shipping, osmosis and filtration. The calls for of sustainable power construction and fresh proceed to force membrane improvement towards the objective of straightforward, effective, and simply built-in structures that supply reasonably cheap, trustworthy processing and operation. This e-book offers a entire evaluation membrane technological know-how and expertise, concentrating on advancements and purposes within the parts of sustainable strength and clean-industry. The e-book first and foremost bargains with primary technology and engineering of membrane layout, improvement and manufacture, together with operational matters, functionality and fiscal research . insurance maintains with reports of the most membrane software within the traditional strength and petrochemical industries, together with membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) separation, in addition to gas and flue gasoline processing. the choice strength region is then thought of, with evaluate of gasoline mobile, electrolyser and battery membrane know-how advancements, in addition to for hydrogen (H2) separation and osmotic functions. the ultimate part studies environmental and clean-industry functions, similar to ultrafiltration and unsafe waste processing.
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Extra info for Advanced Membrane Science and Technology for Sustainable Energy and Environmental Applications (Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy)
Pandey P and Chauhan R S (2001), ‘Membranes for gas separation’, Progress in Polymer Science, 26(6), 853–93. Pinnau I and Freeman B D (1999), Membrane Formation and Modification, ACS Symposium Series, Vol. 744, USA. Powell C E and Qiao G G (2006), ‘Polymeric CO2/N2 gas separation membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from power plant flue gases’, Journal Membrane Science, 279, 1–49. indd 20 8/5/11 10:45:03 AM Fundamental membrane processes, science and engineering 21 centrifugation-ultrafiltration system in the treatment of olive mill wastewater’, Journal Membrane Science, 209(2), 519–31.
The membrane plays the role of a physical barrier that allows certain compounds to pass through, depending on their physical and/or chemical properties. Membranes generally consist of a porous support layer with a thin dense layer on top that forms the actual membrane. The components that pass through the membranes represent the permeate, the solute retained is the retentate. The retention capability is related to the molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of the membrane, which is related to the pore size of the membrane.
Furthermore, improvements in both pretreatment UF and MF membranes as well as the RO membranes will reduce the energy requirements and maintenance costs related to membrane replacement. The lifetime of the membrane represents a critical point in membrane operations; consequently an overall analysis of the process is required, studying all the operating parameters, as well as making an engineering and economic analysis of the overall process. Integrated membrane processes represent an attractive opportunity because of their synergic effects, the simplicity of using single units and the possibility of advanced levels of automation and remote control.